During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods, there was no Rome of the kind that ruled the Mediterranean for centuries and spawned the culture that produced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma.[28] The empire had been divided then later re-united again under Constantine the Great who moved the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD to the city of Byzantium which was renamed Constantinople.[29] The Roman intellectual culture that flourished in ancient times was undergoing a transformation as the academic world moved from laymen to Christian clergy.[30] As the West crumbled, books and libraries flourished and flowed east toward the Byzantine Empire.[31] There, four different types of libraries were established: imperial, patriarchal, monastic, and private.[32] Each had its own purpose and, as a result, their survival varied.173586